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Установка thunderbird для debian

Как установить Thunderbird в Linux

Как установить Thunderbird в Linux? Этот вопрос обычно задают те, кто недавно пересел с Windows на эту операционную систему. И действительно, там все по-другому. Но мы расскажем о том, как инсталлировать этот почтовый клиент.

Руководство

Вообще, Мазилла Тандерберд уже по умолчанию предустановлен во многие дистрибутивы. Но если вдруг вы установили какой-нибудь Debian, Ubuntu или Mint с минимальным набором приложений, то его может и не быть.

Есть несколько способов для инсталляции почтового клиента в Linux. Мы рассмотрим их все. И в качестве примера будем использовать ОС Ubuntu, как самую популярную из «линуксоподобных». Этот дистрибутив основан на Debian. Кстати, инструкция будет актуальна также для Debian и Mint.

Вообще, для всех дистрибутивов, которые основаны на Debian инструкция будет похожей. Только репозитории будут немного отличаться. Сначала мы рассмотрим самый простой и доступный вариант. А затем перейдем к более сложным решениям. Итак, начнем.

Вариант №1: Использование менеджера приложений Ubuntu

В этой операционной системе есть весьма неплохой менеджер приложений с отличным графическим интерфейсом. Этакий аналог App Store на Маках. В библиотеке менеджера находится огромное количество программ на все случаи жизни.

Есть там и пресловутый Thunderbird. Но нужно знать все о том, как его установить. Процесс существенно отличается от того, к чему мы привыкли в Windows. Поэтому мы подготовили подробную инструкцию, рассказывающую о том, как и что нужно делать:

  1. На рабочем столе Ubuntu есть боковая панель, на которой размещены ярлыки для самых важных программ. Там нужно найти «Менеджер приложений» и кликнуть по нему. Значок в виде пакета с буквой «А».
  2. Запустится главное окно менеджера. Сверху выбираем опцию поиска.
  3. Составляем запрос Thunderbird.
  4. Кликаем по соответствующему элементу в списке результатов.
  5. Откроется описание программы. Также в верхней части будет кнопка с надписью «Установить» (Install). Нужно нажать на нее.
  6. Через несколько секунд система попросит ввести логин и пароль суперпользователя для инсталляции программы. Нужно ввести данные и нажать пункт подтверждения.

Вот и вся установка. Через несколько секунд она завершится. В результате на странице приложений Ubuntu появится новый элемент с названием Thunderbird. Можно будет запускать клиент и всесторонне настраивать его. Однако существуют и другие способы инсталляции.

Вариант №2: Использование терминала

Для некоторых это самый «правильный» способ инсталляции. Да и этот вариант способен помочь в тех случаях, если по какой-то причине менеджер приложений не желает работать (а такое случается). Да и метод с терминалом намного быстрее.

Некоторых пользователей пугает консоль. Но если делать все в строгом соответствии с инструкцией, то ничего страшного не случится. Учтите, что для установки вам нужно знать логин и пароль суперпользователя. Итак, приступим.

  1. Итак, сначала нажимаем на клавиатуре сочетание Ctrl + Alt + T .
  2. В консоли вписываем команду sudo add-apt-repository ppa:Mozillateam/Thunderbird-stable и жмем на кнопку Enter .
  3. После этого вводим пароль суперпользователя и опять жмем Enter
  4. Теперь необходимо ввести sudo apt-get update . Не забываем нажать Enter .
  5. И последний шаг: вводим sudo apt-get installthunderbird и подтверждаем действие с помощью той же клавиши.

Вот и все. Через несколько секунд Thunderbird окажется в списке установленных приложений. Такой процесс инсталляции применяется большинством пользователей и считается самым надежным. Но есть еще один метод.

Вариант №3: Использование заранее скачанного пакета

Любое приложение в Linux – это скомпилированный пакет с необходимыми файлами. Поэтому с официального сайта Mozilla можно скачать уже готовый пакет и инсталлировать его вручную. Такой вариант, конечно, сложнее. Но зато всегда срабатывает.

Стоит отметить, что простым двойным кликом по скачанному пакету установку произвести не получится. Придется снова прибегать к помощи терминала. Итак, вот подробная инструкция, рассказывающая о том, что и как нужно делать.

  1. Запускаем веб-обозреватель и переходим на страницу https://www.thunderbird.net/ru/.
  2. Нажимаем на кнопку «Загрузить бесплатно».
  3. Сохраняем предложенный файл и переходим к его расположению.
  4. Кликаем по нему ПКМ и выбираем опцию извлечения.
  5. Открываем сам каталог и в нем папку thunderbird.
  6. Дважды щелкаем ЛКМ на файл thunderbird.

Вот и все. Клиент запущен. Теперь для него можно создать ярлык стандартным способом. Такой вариант сложнее и непонятен многим. Но он есть. Поэтому нужно было его рассмотреть. Но лучше все-таки использовать первых два способа.

Заключение

Пришло время подвести итоги и сделать соответствующие выводы, а также обобщить информацию. В данном материале мы поговорили о том, как установить почтовый клиент Mozilla Thunderbird в операционной системе семейства Linux.

Для этого есть три способа. Наиболее простыми и популярными являются вариант с менеджером приложений и терминалом. Нужно использовать их. А вариант со скачанными пакетами подходит для более продвинутых пользователей.

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  • Thunderbird

Thunderbird is an email/news/chat client with a possible RSS feed aggregation developed by MZLA Technologies Corporation, subs >

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Migration from Icedove

Switching package names

By the functionality of transitional packages the user will automatically get installed the dependent respective Thunderbird packages. There is no special action needed to get Thunderbird installed; it works automatically. In detail the following changes were made to the packages:

Changes due Icedove to Thunderbird De-branding

old package

replaced by

Thunderbird Main application

Thunderbird Development files

Thunderbird with debugging symbols

Lightning, aka Calendar for Thunderbird

l10n localization packages for Thunderbird

l10n localization packages for Lightning

There is no transitional or new package.

After any automatic installation of thunderbird related packages (marked replaced by in the above table) you can simply remove the old icedove related packages (marked old package in the above table). The transitional packages don’t have any working «thing» ins >

Adoption of User Profiles

The Thunderbird application uses a different folder for the user profiles than Icedove. The profiles are collected in

/.thunderbird, Icedove was using

/.icedove. Because of this, the user profiles need to be adopted. The Thunderbird package comes with a wrapper script in /usr/bin/thunderbird which will do the users profile adoption (if possible). It will be triggered automatically if a user is calling thunderbird from a CLI or via the desktop file. The script will do the following things:

1. Check if there is no folder or symlink named

/.thunderbird .
2. Inform the user that an adoption of the existing Icedove profile will happen.

4. Fixup the MIME associations in

Change associations of /usr/bin/iceweasel to /usr/bin/x-www-browser and icedove to thunderbird after a backup was created.

5. Backup and fixup $/.config/mimeapps.list and $/.local/share/applications/mimeapps.list in case they contain entries like userapp-Icedove-*.desktop .

  • 6. List created backup files.
  • These steps will cover most typical users’ concerns, but some users may have a slightly different environment.

    Other environments with other folder structures

    Some users may be using an advanced setup in their home directory. The following two other possibilities of folders and symlinks will be detected and cause no trouble.

    There is a symlink

    /.icedove that is pointing to a folder

    This will of course work as Thunderbird is detecting the folder

    /.thunderbird with the profile(s) in there. You can probably remove

    /.icedove as Thunderbird doesn’t care about that symlink. In case you want to share both profile locations please only use one dedicated Icedove or Thunderbird version! Otherwise, one day you will get in trouble as Icedove and Thunderbird are writing version information into the working profile; this will break at least your local installed extensions one day!

    There is a symlink

    /.thunderbird that is pointing to a folder

    Well, if you have used this in the past everything is also fine now. This is exactly the constellation the wrapper script is now creating to let Thunderbird find a folder

    /.thunderbird that is pointing to val >

    There is a folder or symlink

    /.icedove and there is a folder or symlink

    /.thunderbird which isn’t pointing in a direct way to each other.

    This situation can’t be handled by the wrapper script. We can’t know which folder should be used and the wrapper is showing an error screen. The assumption here is that such user know what to do to solve such a constellation. If there is any solution created as described above the wrapper script is also doing the fixups if needed within the first run.

    I run into trouble!

    Don’t panic, no data will be lost, ever! In case nothing is visibly happening then please start the wrapper script from a CLI by the argument —verbose

    This will turn on a verbose mode which will show more information about things that probably are going wrong. In case you need help please open a bug report with a log of the command.

    I need one of the backup files

    The wrapper script has an option to show created backup files; use the argument —show-backup. This can be also combined with —verbose to see more about what’s happening here. The wrapper will show possible files and exists afterwards.

    System w >

    This part is mostly interesting for system admins or people who need to migrate some global Icedove setting to global Thunderbird settings.

    The Icedove package was allowing some system w >/etc/icedove/pref/icedove.js or adding own files here with a *.js extension. All files here are also being migrated to the Thunderbird package and the respective folder /etc/thunderbird/pref. So if a sysadmin or user has placed some modified files here they will be moved into the new directory. One exception, a modified file /etc/icedove/pref/icedove.js is moved to /etc/thunderbird/pref/icedove.js.dpkg-backup and needs to be adopted by the user into place.

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    OpenSearch prov >

    You are able to prov >/usr/lib/thunderbird/distribution/searchplugins

      Create the missing sub-directories if they don’t exist yet.

    To see the new prov >search.json.mozlz4 in their profile-directory as explained in step #5 of Add Search Engine to Open Search.

    Possible Issues

    Happily, not much yet. It may happen that href links are still not working after the migration. The user probably has done some own «tuning» of Mime file association, any help here is appreciated to find the reason for that behaviour. Please file a bug report.

    AppArmor profile

    Icedove/Thunderbird in Debian now ships an AppArmor profile! AppArmor is a Mandatory Access Control framework. When enabled, AppArmor confines programs according to a set of rules that specify what files a given program can access. This proactive approach helps protect the system against both known and unknown vulnerabilities. If AppArmor is enabled on your computer, the program will be confined. This should not lead to misbehaviour, but if it does, please try to follow the documentation available here: AppArmor/Debug to help debug the profile.

    It’s always great if you can prov >

    When done, you can ask for a merge using Launchpad or upstream’s mailing list

    Now you can also open a Debian bug, assign it to Icedove/Thunderbird and usertag it, using «merge-from-upstream» as tag. See AppArmor/Reportbug#Usertags for more details.

    Please contact the AppArmor team for detailed questions not covered by the documentation.

    De-branding of Icedove (and related packages)

    To get Thunderbird back in Debian we need to de-brand the existing src:icedove package. Debian and Mozilla have been acknowledged to refuse the issues about the branding of Thunderbird ins >

    It was, and is, planned to switch all Icedove versions to Thunderbird above the whole archive while the increase of one version. Thanks to the security team we can do this as new binary packages for Thunderbird will be accepted. The LTS team will adopt this behaviour for the Wheezy release. Also the release team is agreeing to release Stretch with Thunderbird packages and move the Icedove package into transitional packages.

    Tasks for the De-Branding

    The de-branding is a complex thing and we can’t overview yet which s >

    Remove the name branding on iceowl-l10n packages

    Switch to packages named «lightning-l10n*»

    Add transitional packages for «iceowl-l10n*»

    Remove the name branding on icedove.l10n packages

    Switch to packages named «thunderbird-l10n*»

    Add transitional packages for «icedove-l10n*»

    Remove iceowl branding around/ins >

    Rename iceowl-extension to lightning, dropping old iceowl.js
    Reviewing the postinst of lightning

    no further action needed here

    Removing the name branding ins >

      Rename package(s) to thunderbird*

      icedove-dev -> thunderbird-dev

      icedove-dbg -> thunderbird-dbg

    Adjust the package icons and the installation of those

    Add transitional package(s) for icedove

    Move the configuration inside the Icedove package itself (/etc/icedove -> /etc/thunderbird, plugins, . )

    • Needs some stuff ins >
      • moved needed parts to thunderbird.maintscript, adjusted thunderbird.postinst

    Add optional helper to migrate $HOME/.icedove to $/HOME/.thunderbird

    Thunderbird is looking what MOZ_APP_PROFILE is pointing. MOZ_APP_PROFILE is a static variable while built if needed, we will use this variable to let Thunderbird look in

    /.icedove for releases wheezy-security and jessie-security.

    Adjust the *.desktop file to visualize Thunderbird instead of Icedove

    Adopt the autopkg test to the new binary names

    Adding some notes into README.Debian about the name switching

    Changing the helper scripts ins >

    • adopting build folders for l10n data in debian/rules afterwards (to be done after first «new» import)

    Generate own Thunderbird icons preferable from a SVG file

    Review and Rework of the manpage for thunderbird (previously icedove) after the de-branding

    Remove WhatsNew linking via mailnews.start_page.overr >

    Switch to compat level 9 if possible, use dh-exec for files that change there name

    make wrapper script /usr/bin/thunderbird smart enough for passing Thunderbird options through

  • (./)more improvements to the wrapper script
    • move the specific part of the migration into separate file
    • do better proofing (for files) before starting any migration, make the script here >

    work on the current Lintian output into the new packages

    Prepare some notes about the changes (like profile folder) for Stretch
    prepare some information for the release notes of Stretch

    prepare announcement for d-d-a about the new de-branded packages

    start a Wiki page for Thunderbird, especially with information about the migration from Icedove

    do the same as a text file for /u/s/d/thunderbird

    review the copyright file more in deep

    reactivate the Crash Reporter feature

  • writing a blog post?
  • Left over issues?

    • We need two desktop files; one for the existing Icedove, and the new one for Thunderbird. The logical content is the same, except the ‘NAME’ thing is differing. For Stretch the desktop file for Icedove is moved into the transitional Icedove package. For Jessie and Wheezy there are objections to keep the icedove.desktop file ins >
      • Due to this, we can keep existing local links on the user desktop made for Icedove pointing now to Thunderbird with the new icon in Jessie and Wheezy.
      • For Stretch we only keep the Thunderbird desktop file. If the user is doing a dist-upgrade from Jessie the personal linking has to be redone with the new desktop file.
    • Remind users to delete or move the old created backup from the

      /.icedove folder after several versions. Add a hint into README and NEWS maybe too.

    Tracking of Bug Reports for Icedove to Thunderbird Migration

    To see all bug reports that are related to the Icedove -> Thunderbird migration you can look at all bugs tagged by icedeove-thunderbird-migration. To add additional bug reports you can simply use bts.

    GTK3 support was targeted and re-enabled by upstream with the first beta versions of ESR 52. Debian is prov >

    Bug Reporting / Issues

    Thunderbird will, like most any other Debian released software, work fine. It may happen that you haven’t an expected behaviour while using Thunderbird or a related installed package like lightning or calendar-google-prov > Has something else changed? Only Thunderbird was changed / updated or has some other package also changed?

    Often the Thunderbird package(s) aren’t the root of trouble or issues. Thunderbird can be expanded with new functionality by AddOns and those can also produce some regressions after an update of them. On the other hand, Thunderbird is also relying on other packages which prov > Have you tried to disable all plugins to check if the issue is now still existing? In case something is misbehaving on your s >

    $ thunderbird --safe-mode Thunderbird is working without any activated extensions well, but with the active extensions issues are still happening? You need to find out which extension is causing trouble. Just start Thunderbird normally and disable extension by extension. You will need to restart Thunderbird with each disabled extension. Hopefully Thunderbird will work again once you’ve found the fishy extension.

    It’s sometimes useful to also start the JS console while you are doing such disabling bit by bit to see potential JS errors from the extensions, to do so add the option —jsconsole to the CLI call.

    $ thunderbird --jsconsole In case you have found a faulty extension, check if it is up to date if the extension is installed manually! You can always install any extension within your local profile. The Thunderbird maintainers have no control over such extensions as the user has installed them. You need to take care of such extensions on your own. If the extension is installed from the Debian archive you will probably need to report a bug against this package. If you are unsure, contact the Thunderbird maintainers; we will gu > O.k. a problem related to Thunderbird is still existing. What else can I do?

    The following advice is for more experienced users. You can check if the issue is still alive if you use a fresh clean profile; that’s not that difficult. The rationale for this is that sometimes, for whatever reason, a broken user profile can cause a not fully working Thunderbird. This can be checked by using a fresh new profile. Create a new profile by simply using the profile manager, the existing profile won’t touched.

    $ thunderbird -P You are really sure you have found a issue, so you want to start a bug report?

    Please take some time and check existing bug reports for similar issues! Yes, this takes a bit of time, but this will help the maintainers also! Please imagine that not only you have found an issue, some other user have also found the same problem just two days before you. If you start a separate bug report the maintainers need time to check if both reports are the same thing and coordinate their work to catch both user’s problems correctly. This costs important time on the maintainer s >

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